Will JBS Survive a Political Corruption Scandal?

 

This article was published on the Emerge 85 blog on Aug. 28, 2017:

By Rasheed Abou-Alsamh

If you live in the Americas or Europe, you’ve probably eaten beef or chicken processed by Brazilian meat giant JBS. At its peak, just a few years ago, JBS was slaughtering 90,000 head of cattle a day. Now, battered by a recession and its role in a corruption scandal, its future is set to be smaller.

However, as the world’s largest producer of animal protein, JBS is expected to survive its involvement in one of Brazil’s biggest political scandals not just because of its size, but also because it draws 80% of its income from abroad. In 2016, the company pulled in revenue of $53.5bn. In comparison, its closest rival, Arkansas-based Tyson Foods, made $41.3bn in 2015.

The majority owners of JBS, brothers Joesley and Wesley Batista, are accused of bribing politicians in exchange for rulings and favours that would benefit the business. They are also accused of paying members of congress R$30m ($9.5m) to ensure Eduardo Cunha – who has since been jailed – was elected speaker of the House of Representatives in 2015. The Batistas called the payments “campaign contributions”, claims denied by Cunha who says the money was given directly to each congressman.

Secret contributions to political parties started small, in 2002, amounting to about R$200,000 ($63,514). By 2014, they had ballooned to about R$366m ($116.2m), divided among 24 parties.

The brothers have been under investigation since 2016, with at least five separate cases opened against them during that time. On May 18, 2017, they agreed to tell investigators everything about the scheme – in return for total immunity from prosecution and a R$225m ($71.4m) fine to be paid back over ten years.

Rapid growth and expansion overseas

JBS began life in 1953 as Casa de Carnes Mineira, a small butcher’s shop in Anápolis run by José Batista Sobrinho, father to Joesley and Wesley. That same decade, the planning and building of Brazil’s new federal capital Brasilia gave Sobrinho the chance to expand his business. Envisioned by President Juscelino Kubitschek, Brasilia was born to develop the country’s interior and disperse some of the Brazilian population concentrated along the coastline. But such development takes time, and for several years Brasilia was nothing more than a collection of construction sites – construction sites that, in 1957, Sobrinho began supplying beef to. But it was not until 1970 that the butcher decided to buy his first slaughterhouse and change the company name to Friboi.

By 1980, Friboi had bought another meat processing plant in the Federal District, tripling the number of cattle slaughtered daily to 300. In 1985, Friboi decided to expand out of the meat business, building a plant to produce soaps. But it didn’t take Sobrinho long to once again hear the call of the cattle, and a small meat-processing plant was purchased in Luziânia in 1988. Eight years later, a fourth plant was purchased in Goiânia that would allow Friboi to meet stringent European meat standards and export its goods further afield.

But it wasn’t until 2005, with the purchase of Argentine meat processor Swift Armour, that Friboi’s international expansion began. Two years later it launched an initial public offering and was listed on the São Paulo Stock Exchange. It also changed its name to JBS, in honour of its founder, and bought Swift units in the US and Australia. This also marked the addition of pork and chicken to its range of products.

In 2009, JBS bought major US poultry-processing company Pilgrim’s Pride, significantly boosting its US payroll to 70,000. In 2015, Primo Smallgoods in Australia and Moy Park in Ireland came under its remit. The Moy Park acquisition helped JBS grow its manufacturing and distribution of prepared foods in Europe, and in 2016 the company’s income rose to R$170bn ($5.4bn), up from R$4bn ($1.3bn) in 2006.

To read the rest of my article please visit the Emerge85 website: http://emerge85.io/articles/will-jbs-survive-political-corruption-scandal/

Doubts Raised About Effectiveness of New Saudi  Opposition Movement

A Saudi woman drives in Saudi Arabia, where women are still not allowed to drive:

FROM MY ARCHIVES:

24/10/2006

By Rasheed Abou-Alsamh

Christian Science Monitor

JEDDAH, Saudi Arabia – An exiled Saudi millionaire has
taken on the nearly impossible task of bringing reform
to this conservative kingdom.
Talal Al-Rasheed, a member of a leading Saudi family
that once ruled central Arabia for several decades,
announced the launch of a new opposition movement in
August that will focus on ending what he claims is
endemic corruption in the kingdom.
He joins a long tradition of opposition to the ruling
Al-Saud family, some of it even from within the royal
family itself. But all of these opposition movements
have failed in bringing dramatic change to a deeply
suspicious population that has been kept quiet through
massive state subsidies and handsome payouts by the
royal family.
Several Saudi analysts have said they doubt that the
recently launched opposition movement will have much
support among the Saudi population.
Al-Rasheed, who has lived in exile in Paris since
1980, told the Christian Science Monitor in an
interview that his group seeks political and social
reforms in the oil-rich kingdom, which would see the
establishment of an elected parliament and more rights
for women.
The religiously conservative kingdom currently only
has a powerless appointed Shoura Council and women are
barred from driving, voting and holding political
office. Although King Abdullah has allowed limited
reforms such as the municipal elections held last year
for the first time in 40 years, many Saudis say that
change is coming too slowly.
“Our group seeks the following: Democratic,
transparent parliamentary elections; liberating women
and giving them their full rights; arresting the
people who are stealing the government’s money, giving
the press its freedom of expression, and to have the
administrative and legitimate authority at the hands
of the citizens and their elected representatives
only,” said the 70-year-old Al-Rasheed.
Al-Rasheed claims to have 2,000 supporters in the
kingdom, both Sunni and Shia, conservative and
liberal, and says that “there are many wealthy people
who support us.” But not everyone is sure of this wide
range of support.
“I do not believe that he has 2,000 supporters. I’m
very skeptical about this figure,” said Adel
Al-Toraifi, an analyst and newspaper columnist based
in Riyadh.
Nawaf Al-Obaid, a security advisor to the Saudi
government, also doubts the level of support claimed
by Al-Rasheed.
“I have doubts about him saying he has 2,000
supporters in the kingdom,” said Al-Obaid. “I think
they are Internet supporters, people who have
expressed support on their website.”
Al-Rasheed said that his group plans to beam
opposition television programs into the kingdom via
satellite, run an Internet website and publish a
newspaper.
“Our TV station will air democratic programs that call
for justice and equality. We want to eliminate
corruption from governmental bodies, especially the
judiciary where people are using bribes to rule and
issue judgments against Allah’s rules,” explained the
reformer. “Everyone will have access to this TV
station, even people who disagree with us.”
He denied rumors that he was joining forces with
another Saudi opposition leader, the London-based Saad
Al-Faqeeh, although Al-Obaid claimed that Al-Rasheed
would be using the satellite broadcasting company of
Al-Faqeeh to beam programs into the kingdom.
“We have no practical association with Saad
Al-Faqeeh. We respect him because he’s a fighter who
deserves to be respected. However, we view things
differently,” said Al-Rasheed.
Al-Faqeeh and his Movement of Islamic Reform in Arabia
have been effectively neutralized since July 2005 when
the US government managed to link him to Al-Qaeda by
alleging that he posted messages written by the terror
group on his website. Al-Faqeeh’s websites have been
subsequently shut down and he has apparently stopped
broadcasting TV programs into the country.
The Al-Rasheed clan is very large and is part of the
Al-Shammar Bedouin tribe that extends from Hail all
the way into Iraq. Long rulers of Hail in central
Arabia, they ruled most of central Arabia, including
Riyadh, from 1887 until 1902, when the founder of
modern Saudi Arabia Abdulaziz Al-Saud recaptured
Riyadh after living in exile in Kuwait for several
years.
Many members of the Al-Rasheed clan have been
receiving a monthly government stipend, much like the
more than 5,000 princes of the royal Al-Saud family
receive. This has served to pacify them and buy their
allegiance to the Saudi state, though many Al-Rasheeds
still believe that they are the legitimate rulers of
the kingdom.
Talal Al-Rasheed is said to have received millions of
dollars in stipends from the Saudi government over the
years, but he denied that he was still receiving a
stipend.
“We belong to the Al-Rasheed family and as you know
it’s been a ruling family for decades. We have enough
fortune to cover the cost of our expenses and needs. I
used to receive regular stipends from the government
until 1975. Since then I haven’t received any money
from the Saudi government,” said Al-Rasheed.
“He’s a pretty old man. He’s been living in Paris for
the past three decades. It’s doubtful that he has much
support among the Al-Rasheed clan,” said Al-Obaid.
“He’s trying to have a unified opposition, but how can
you lump liberal Sunnis and Shias with hardcore
Salafis?”
But Al-Rasheed said he was confident that his movement
would be successful because of its broad base and
inclusiveness.
“We can’t measure the success or failure of an
opposition group by seizure of the government through
a coup. Saudis today are not the same as in the past.
They are now part of much smaller world. We are
walking on the same path as others because we want
reform. However, we’re different in being a national
movement that includes all regions of the country,”
explained Al-Rasheed.
But Al-Toraifi disagrees, saying that the reformists
in the kingdom are too disorganized and distracted to
pose much of a threat to the royal family. He also
believes that King Abdullah is trying to bring in
democratic reforms but faces much opposition both from
the powerful “ulama” (religious scholars) and within
his own family.
“King Abdullah is going slowly with reforms as he
faces opposition from within the royal family and
faces regional problems such as the war in Lebanon and
Iran’s expansionist tendencies,” said Al-Toraifi.
“Reforms are coming very, very slowly. The lack of
transparency on the part of King Abdullah in terms of
his reform plan makes it difficult to gauge just how
far he’s willing to go.”

 

Saudi blocks imports of Brazilian meat from four plants

Brazilian Agriculture Minister Blairo Maggi inspects meat at a Seara plant.

UPDATE: The Saudi Food and Drug Authority announced late on March 22, 2017, that the Kingdom was suspending the import of meat from four Brazilian meat processing plants.

Brazilian Ambassador to the Kingdom Flavio Marega met the head of the SFDA on March 22 and explained to him the ongoing investigation dubbed “Weak Meat” being undertaken by the Federal Police.

 By Rasheed Abou-Alsamh

BRASILIA—The Saudi envoy to Brazil said that he and other foreign ambassadors in the Brazilian capital are waiting for the conclusions of the Brazilian government’s investigation into the bribing of meat inspectors and alleged export of rotten meat. Thirty-three inspectors and meat company officials have been arrested, and three meat-processing plants have been closed.

Several countries have already put a temporary freeze on imports of Brazilian meat, including China, South Korea and Chile. One of the meat companies being investigated exported chicken parts to Saudi Arabia and the UAE.

Ambassador Hisham al-Qahtani told me in an interview that Saudi authorities are aware of the accusations that rotten meat was exported from Brazil. He was one of the 33 ambassadors that attended a dinner hosted by Brazilian President Michel Temer on Sunday night at a posh barbecue restaurant in Brasilia to assure them of the safety and quality of Brazilian meat.

“President Temer and Agriculture Minister Blairo Maggi explained everything that is happening,” said Qahtani. “They will do an investigation and will inform us of their findings. It is a very complicated situation, so we have to wait to see what the results of the investigation will tell us.”

Qahtani noted that Saudi authorities are aware of the situation. “I don’t know what they will decide in the Kingdom, but they are already aware of the investigation,” he said.

Saudi Arabia is the largest importer of Brazilian chicken in the world. According to Brazilian National Agricultural Society statistics, the kingdom imported more than US$1.150 billion in chicken products from Brazil, which amounted to 746,000 tons, in 2016.

The Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) is responsible for monitoring food safety in the Kingdom, and last sent a team of inspectors to visit Brazilian meat processing plants in 2015, when the Kingdom lifted its three-year ban on Brazilian beef.

Brazil’s ambassador to the Kingdom told me in an interview that he is going to meet with SFDA officials on Wednesday in Riyadh to brief them on the Brazilian government’s investigation.

“So far I have not received any special instructions on how to calm the fears of Saudi consumers,” ambassador Flavio Marega said. “But we are basing our information on what President Michel Temer said at the dinner with foreign ambassadors. I am meeting with the head of the SFDA on Wednesday, and will find out then what the position of the Saudi government is.”

The Brazilian Agriculture Ministry posted a list on its website on Monday of the meat companies being investigated by the ministry and the Federal Police for allegedly exporting adulterated meat products. The Seara company is listed as having exported frozen chicken parts to the Kingdom, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, the UAE, and the European Union. Seara is owned by the giant JBS Group, the largest meat company in the world. In 2016 it had earnings before taxes of US$1 billion.

The Federation of Muslim Associations in Brazil (Fambras), which does halal certification of Brazilian chicken and beef exports to Muslim countries, said in a statement on its website that the quality of Brazilian halal meat was excellent and that it makes sure that Brazilian meat processors follow all of the necessary rules to produce, store and sell meat suitable for the consumption of Muslims.

“I do not believe that the Saudi authorities will impose restrictions on Brazilian meat since they already follow and inspect the procedures done here in Brazil and they know that there is no risk,” said Ali Zoghbi, the vice-president of Fambras, in an interview from Sao Paulo.

President Temer defended the quality of Brazilian meat, saying on Monday that all of the country’s production of meat could not be devalued because of the actions of a few. “We have more or less 4,850 meat processing plants in Brazil, and only three of them have been shut, apart from the 18 or 19 plants that are going to be investigated,” he said.

“I think the investigation is more centered on corruption rather than the quality of Brazilian meat,” said Miguel Daoud, a business consultant, in an interview with Globo News. “Eighty percent of the meat produced in Brazil is consumed locally. I am not that pessimistic, although this is a very serious investigation by the Federal Police,” he added.

Many analysts have noted that Brazil has built its reputation as an exporter of excellent quality meat products over the past ten years, and that this scandal has the possibility of setting back Brazil’s meat exports by five years.

Brazil’s attorney general asks that politicians be investigated

Attorney General Rodrigo Janot’s boxes of evidence that back up his request to have 83 current politicians investigated for corruption arrive at the Supreme Court in Brasilia on Tuesday evening.

 

By Rasheed Abou-Alsamh

BRASILIA – Brazil’s Attorney General Rodrigo Janot sent a long list of 83 current politicians to the Supreme Court to be investigated for possible involvement in corruption linked to the Car Wash investigation. He sent a further list of 211 suspects to lower courts. In Brazil, politicians in office can only be probed and tried by the Supreme Court.

According to the O Globo newspaper, citing sources that had seen the documents, former presidents Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva and Dilma Rousseff are on the list, as well as current senators Aecio Neves and Jose Serra. The president of the House of Representatives Rodrigo Maia; the head of the Senate Eunicio Oliveira; the chief of staff of President Michel Temer, Eliseu Padilha; the general secretary of the Presidency, Moreira Franco; Foreign Minister Aloysio Nunes; Minister of Science and Technology Gilberto Kassab, and Minister of Cities Bruno Araujo, are also going to be investigated.

The leader of the government in the Senate, Romero Juca, the leader of the PMDB party in the Senate, Renan Calheiros, and Sen. Edson Lobao will also be investigated, according to O Globo. Former finance ministers Guido Mantega and Antonio Palocci are also included in Janot’s list.

Janot’s list of those to be investigated arrived in seven boxes at the Supreme Court in Brasilia at 5 p.m. They have been placed in a secure room next to the office of the head of the court, Chief Justice Carmen Lucia. Jornal da Band estimated that it will take court employees at least 10 days to initially go through all of the boxes, sorting the evidence that Janot sent the court, and scanning all of the documents into a computer system.  It is not known if the court will release the names of all being investigated, or of just a select few.

The Brazilian capital has been waiting with bated breath for the past two weeks for Janot’s list to reach the Supreme Court, with leading politicians in Congress afraid that their names would be included in the list.

Former President Lula gave testimony to a federal judge in Brasilia on Tuesday afternoon. Lula was asked if he had tried to unduly influence the Car Wash investigations. He denied the accusation, and alleged that he was the victim of a campaign to “massacre” him, reported the Folha de Sao Paulo. In the first minutes of his testimony Lula said that he woke up every morning in his home afraid that journalists would be camped out at his door waiting for him to be arrested.

The presidential palace wants the Supreme Court to release all of the names of the investigated politicians by the end of this week, so as to have time to counter the negative impact the list will have on the opinion of Brazilian voters. The Temer government is trying to push through Congress a major overhaul of the Social Security system, which will raise the mandatory retirement age. It also fears that the opposition will use the names of current government ministers on Janot’s list to attack the Temer administration during nationwide protests to support the Car Wash investigations to be held on March 26.

Some Brazilians skip Carnival for spiritual retreats

Members of the Adventist Church participate in a spiritual retreat during the 2012 Carnival in Brazil.

 By Rasheed Abou-Alsamh

BRASILIA – With the official Carnival parades of samba schools in full swing in Brazil, many Brazilians are opting to not participate in a celebration that they believe to be excessive and immoral.

“Many immoral and nearly naked people go to Carnival. They engage in excessive drinking. We like to travel during Carnival without participating in the street dancing. We follow the Bible,” Neusa Lacerda, a 50-year-old housekeeper who lives in Gama, a satellite city around 34 kilometers from Brasilia, told me in an interview.

Born into a Catholic family, Neusa says a Jehovah’s Witness family raised her. She and her husband are now members of the evangelical church, and like to participate in family barbecues on the weekends.

“I have danced in the streets during Carnival in the past,” she said. “But God forgives us. I suffered a lot as my father was an alcoholic, and my religion says that we cannot become drunk. It is a question of self-control.”

Neusa is part of a growing number of Brazilians who are leaving the Catholic Church, which is still the largest in Brazil, and joining evangelical Protestant churches. According to the Datafolha polling firm three in every ten Brazilians (29 percent) are now evangelicals. In 1994, 75 percent of Brazilians considered themselves Catholic. In 2015 that number had fallen to 55 percent. The evangelical churches have been aggressive in recruiting new members, and use singing and other activities to attract Catholics bored by the relative traditionalism of the Catholic Church.

Carnival celebrations are big business in Brazil, with the 2016 one in Sao Paulo, Brazil’s largest city, generating R$400 million (US$129 million) in business sales, according to the mayor’s office. It estimates that for every R$1 spent, the city earns R$40 in return. This year in Salvador, Bahia, the local government estimates that R$50 million (US$16 million) will be spent on 197 attractions, with more than half of the expenses being sponsored by the private sector. In the colonial city of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, it was reported by the O Tempo newspaper that revelers consumed 1 million liters of beer in the 2012 Carnival.

With the whole country shutting down for four days during the peak of the Carnival, it can be hard for evangelical churches to compete with the large street celebrations all over the country. Just last weekend in pre-Carnival street celebrations in Rio de Janeiro, it was estimated that one million people took to the streets to dance behind “trio eletricos” or mobile bands that blast out happy music for hours on end.

Some evangelical churches have decided to join in the Carnival celebrations, but in squeaky-clean and religious versions. According to the Folha de Sao Paulo newspaper the Bola de Neve Church in Guarulhos held a Carnival party on Feb. 10 at its headquarters, with music and dancing. But instead of the sleazy lyrics common in Carnival songs, words praising Jesus were inserted.

But most evangelical churches stay well away from dancing during Carnival and instead promote spiritual retreats where followers can spend their time in reflection and prayers. That is what the Baptist Ebezener Church of Taguatinga, around 24 kilometers from Brasilia, is doing yet again this year. It started holding this annual retreat in 2002, and runs around 20 branches of the church in Brasilia and surrounding cities.

“We are holding a spiritual retreat from Feb. 24-28, and we are expecting 3,000 people to attend,” pastor J. Alves told me in a phone interview.  “We have invited several guest speakers to give lectures during the day, and we have separate activities for the children and teenagers. We will charge each attendee around R$50 (US$16) a day in order to participate.”

Venezuela’s opposition tries to unite against Maduro

Opposition supporters protest in Caracas.

This story was published in Arab News on Feb. 10, 2017:

By Rasheed Abou-Alsamh

Special to Arab News

BRASILIA: A divided opposition in Venezuela is trying to put their differences aside to fight the political repression of President Nicolas Maduro, attempt to stop the country’s economy from sliding even more into depression, and to lower sky-high inflation.

President Maduro, an avid socialist, and protege of the late President Hugo Chavez, who is responsible for Venezuela’s voyage down the road to allegedly become a worker’s republic, has resorted to imprisoning political opponents and protesters. On the economic front, things have not gone well. The economy has been in a downward spiral for the past few years, ever since the international price of crude oil plunged in 2014. The country is dependent on imports for most of its food and goods, and with strict price controls enforced by the government, and forced nationalizations of whole sectors, this has led to widespread shortages of everything from soap, meat, sugar to toilet paper.

Despite opposition parties winning a majority of seats in Parliament in the December 2015 elections, 112 out of 167 seats, the Maduro government refuses to share power with them or even talk with them. For his new year address to the nation, Maduro did not deliver his speech in front of Parliament as is customary, but in front of the Supreme Court which is packed with his supporters.

This has caused regular street protests against the government, and Maduro has responded by having protesters arrested. Foro Penal, an NGO of lawyers who came together to defend protesters who get arrested, estimates that between 2013 and 2016, 429 protesters were arrested, and that 106 were still in jail at the end of December 2016. It estimates that there were 2,732 detentions in Venezuela for political reasons in 2016 alone, and that from January 2014 to December 2016 there were 6,831 political detentions.

“Maduro has created a sort of revolving door, a few leave and many more come in,” said Gonzalo Himiob, one of Foro Penal’s directors, to the Brazilian newspaper O Globo last month. “The economic and social crisis is very serious and will cause many more protests,” he added.

“The government must either file formal charges and try people in open court, or release them. Indefinite holding of individuals without trial makes a mockery of the judicial system,” said Miguel Tinker Salas, a Venezuelan historian and professor of Latin American Studies at Pomona College in California, in an interview with Arab News.

The opposition started a petition last year to have Maduro removed from office for incompetence, but despite getting the required signatures from 20 percent of registered voters, election officials stopped the petition in October 2016. A poll by Datanalisis at the time found that 90 percent of the population believed the country was going in the wrong direction, and 76 percent wanted Maduro to leave office.

In January 2017 Maduro appointed the hard line governor of Aragua, Tareck El Aissami, as his new vice president. By the end of the month he gave Aissami economic decree powers, making him one of the most powerful men in Venezuela. This caused the opposition to rethink their strategy of removing Maduro from president, since the vice president would take over in such a scenario.

Although opposition parties have formed a coalition called the Democratic Unity Roundtable, known by its Spanish acronym MUD, they have been severely divided, able at times to rouse large street protests across the country against Maduro’s rule, and at other times unable to.

“The opposition parties in Venezuela are divided, and there are calls from Maria Corina Machado and others to disband the MUD and form a new organization. Some in the opposition want a recall; while others prefer to oust Maduro through street actions, and yet others would rather confront the government in statewide elections for governor later this year. They hope that regional elections would set the stage for presidential elections where they hope to defeat Maduro,” Salas said.

Both the Union of South American Nations (Unasur) and the Vatican have been trying to negotiate an agreement between the Maduro government and the opposition, but to no avail so far. The secretary general of the Organization of American States, Luis Almagro, has been especially critical of Maduro’s repression of opposition protests, and pointed out in an interview to the El Observador newspaper at the end of January that there was a need to act now in Venezuela because the mediation efforts of Unasur and Vatican had been a failure.

“People have been deprived of their constitutional right to recall President Maduro, political prisoners are still incarcerated, violence is rampant, and there is widespread hunger. The international community cannot wait any longer and must act now,” Almagro said.

But Salas believes that the OAS has been sidelined in Venezuela because of its criticism of Maduro’s rule.

“The secretary of the OAS, Almagro, has engaged in sharp personal attacks on the government, while turning a blind eye to issues in other countries such as Mexico. As a result the OAS has been largely sidelined in Venezuela. The key players have been Unasur and the Catholic Church. With Ernesto Samper’s resignation as secretary general of Unasur, it is still unclear what future role the body will play in Venezuela,” said Salas.

After not having much to show for after years of street protests, the opposition MUD coalition is now planning new ways of appealing to the Venezuelan electorate.

Jesus Torrealba, the secretary general of MUD, told the Americas Quarterly that they would be doing more outreach to poorer voters this year. He said they would rotate its leadership and include civil society in its decision making.

http://www.arabnews.com/node/1051991/world

Brazil tries to contain yellow fever outbreak

This story was published in Arab News on Feb. 2, 2017:

By Rasheed Abou-Alsamh

Special to Arab News

BRASILIA: Brazil is trying to contain an outbreak of yellow fever that has already claimed 46 lives, by vaccinating inhabitants of high-risk areas.

There have been 568 suspected cases of yellow fever so far this year, with 430 still being investigated, 107 confirmed cases and 31 discarded ones, according to the Health Ministry.
The outbreak is centered in rural areas of southeast Minas Gerais state, and the bordering areas of the states of Bahia and Espirito Santo.

“Apparently the state governments involved were rather slow in vaccinating everyone, but as soon as the outbreak happened they started to quickly vaccinate the population at risk,” Dirceu Bartolomeu Greco, an infection specialist and professor at the School of Medicine of the Federal University of Minas Gerais in Belo Horizonte, told Arab News.

“I think we may have reached the peak of the current outbreak. This serves as a very important reminder that the preventive part of this is perhaps the most important. I think this outbreak will be controlled.”

There is no known cure for yellow fever, so getting vaccinated is the best way to prevent contracting the disease.

It is a viral infection that causes fever, headache, chills, back pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, muscle pain, nausea and vomiting. In advanced stages it attacks the liver, causing the victim’s skin to turn yellow.

Brazil has been battling the disease since the mid-1800s. It originated in Africa and was brought to South America by slaves.

The Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz) in Rio de Janeiro has been leading the fight against yellow fever in Brazil since its establishment in 1900, and today produces millions of doses of yellow fever vaccine for Brazil and various countries in Africa.

The Health Ministry reinforced its strategic stock of vaccine with an additional 11.5 million doses. It has already sent out an extra 5.4 million doses to five states: 2.9 million to Minas Gerais, 1.05 million to Espirito Santo, 400,000 to Bahia, 350,000 to Rio de Janeiro and 700,000 to Sao Paulo.

The problem is that many people living in urban areas have rushed to public health posts to be vaccinated for free, causing temporary shortages of the vaccine in some cities.
In Luziania, Goias, just 57 kilometers from the capital Brasilia, a suspected yellow fever death led to a rush on vaccination centers, causing a 30 percent increase in the number of people seeking vaccination, O Globo newspaper reported.

The federal government sent an extra 100,000 doses to Goias. The state government of Goias said 94 percent of its population is already vaccinated against the disease. The strain of yellow fever prevalent in Brazil is spread by mosquitoes living in rural areas, where monkeys are the common carriers of the virus.

The government recommends that Brazilians living in 19 states, mostly in the mid-west and north of the country, take the vaccine.

New scientific studies have shown that a single yellow fever vaccination could possibly protect a person their whole life.

“The advantage of the vaccine is that studies are showing that you’ll probably only need one dose to protect yourself for life,” said Greco.

Studies have shown that a single vaccination has protected some patients for up to 30 years. Current practice recommends that people living in or traveling to high-risk areas be vaccinated every 10 years.

Rapid expansion of the population into rural areas has added to the severity of yellow fever outbreaks, said Greco: “Brazil hasn’t had an urban outbreak of yellow fever since 1942, but we need to keep an eye on this push into rural areas and keep up our prevention campaigns.”

The virus is transmitted in Brazil by mosquitoes in rural, heavily wooded areas, not by the Aedes aegypti mosquitos of urban areas that have already spread dengue fever and the Zika virus. This year’s outbreak of yellow fever has been the largest in Brazil’s history, Folha de Sao Paulo newspaper reported.

In 2000 there were 85 cases and 40 deaths, in 2008 there were 46 cases and 27 deaths, and in 2009 there were 47 cases and 17 deaths.

http://www.arabnews.com/node/1047666/world

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